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The combustion chamber in the pellet burning FD-Oorja that we have in the lab is made from castable refractory ceramic and is over 20 years old. The CQC Rocket combustion chamber is less expensive and is manufactured from sand, clay, and cement. With the addition of forced draft via a Jet-Flame, it reaches Tier 4 for thermal efficiency and PM 2.
To replace health protecting stoves that use natural gas a fossil fuel it seems likely that FD-TLUDs and FD-Rockets can be built with lower cost and 10 year durability combustion chambers. A fan usually a radial pressure blower capable of moving air against significant resistance is required. What is needed is pressure to keep the air moving and to create molecular mixing of the woodgas and flame.
The Jet-Flame uses the same technology as a forge. Thirty 2mm jets of air at 0. When the pressure rises and the vertical jets of air penetrate further into the charcoal and fire, the following effects are seen:. The higher temperatures also result in lower PM2. However, proper metering of the fuel, mixing caused by turbulence, and sufficient residence time are as important for decreased emissions of PM2.
Increasing the pressure also increases firepower even when a constant fuel load usually two 4cm by 4. Larger sticks have a lower surface area to volume ratio and make less smoke. When the outer surface of the sticks are covered with charcoal, emissions decrease as well. With forced draft adding more air, the average Lambda in a Rocket stove tends to stay above two times stoichiometric. Secondary air jets blowing into the fire, on the other hand, have a cooling effect.
A durable refractory ceramic material is better suited to higher operating temperatures. Replacing metal combustion chambers with low mass, refractory ceramic was recommended by the DOE biomass stove conference. When the pressure is too high, the fire can be blown out when the charcoal has disappeared. A layer of charcoal under the fire or charcoal coating the sticks helps to maintain the fire and lower emissions as charcoal emits much less PM2.
The levels of CO tend to rise when the flame above the sticks decreases. The amount of flame above the sticks seems to be related to lower emissions of CO and PM2. The amount of flame above the burning sticks, the metering of the fuel, and the mixing of the wood gas are not as easily quantified as temperature and residence time but are as important for more complete combustion.
It was originally designed to go through the door, with the sticks placed on top. So of course we ran some tests, and discovered more benefits. Is the Jet-Flame, when inserted into the combustion chamber from the side of the CQC stove, as effective in reducing emissions as when it enters through the fuel door? Yes, performance seems to have even improved a bit. To burn cleanly, natural draft Rockets like to burn something like 8cm of the end of the sticks.
Instead of laying the entire length of the sticks on the heated metal of the Jet-Flame, the side entry only exposes a limited amount of the sticks to high temperatures. As seen in the photo, the sticks are now supported by a white homemade high mass brick and only the tips are exposed to Jet-Flame heat well inside the stove. Thanks again, Jean Marie! The time to boil, thermal efficiency, temperature in the combustion chamber, CO, and PM were improved with side entry while firepower rose.
Excess air fell from 3. I liked operating the stove because the sticks seemed to burn more at their tips as Dr. Winiarski described in the Rocket Design Principles. I ask for help when moving the CQC stove. We built it on a piece of plywood and two folks can, with care, move it around the lab but it is heavy. Winiarski advised that, when possible, Rocket stoves should float in water at less than 1 gram per cubic centimeter.
For a long time, people have added sawdust and other lightweight materials into earthen mixtures to try to lighten up stoves. I ended up at Shengzhou Stove Manufacturer SSM in China because for hundreds of years ceramicists had manufactured and sold in Africa since durable earthen stoves that weighed around 0.
Their amazing clay floats when dug out of the ground! It is full of diatomaceous earth. The Shens own a year supply of clay in two mines next to the factory. The heat from the fire is diverted into the mass of the stove body and less heat is available to cook food. It is harder to start a hot, intense fire in a high mass combustion chamber. In a natural draft stove, this can be disadvantageous.
Lightening the bricks helps to address this difficulty. Heat is still diverted into the stove body, but less. Well insulated, mostly metal, Rocket stoves successfully avoid most of these losses. Indigenous cooks, experts at using fire, often use grasses and twigs to start a hot, fast fire in a high mass stove.
You need to pour the BTUs into the stove to quickly prepare food. Speed to cook is almost always the first priority when talking to cooks around the world. The CQC skirt creates a 5mm channel gap that is 7cm high. The 5 liters of water boiled in After the first The progressively hotter gases scraping against the sides and bottom of the pot in the small channel gap were more and more successful at transferring heat through the metal walls of the pot into the water.
This similarity was completely unexpected at ARC. The two firms will fund and deploy efficient cook stoves with pot skirts to one million rural households across Malawi, Zambia and Tanzania. Addressing health by increasing the air exchange rate in the kitchen and home is a fundamental component of this project.
This is done by strategic placement of windows and doors, and promoting half-wall kitchens or well-protected external cooking spaces. A minimum of one visit per year by trained staff to each household to help repair, maintain, and ensure good use of the Rocket stoves is also essential to elevating adoption rates in the targeted areas. Over the next decade, this investment will deliver over 40 million high quality carbon credits with verified Sustainable Development Contributions to the Voluntary Carbon Market.
It is the first leg of a three-pronged program to transform the lives of low-income communities across Sub-Saharan Africa at scale. Field tests have indicated that the Jet-Flame dramatically reduces PM2. Of course, we are exploring all possibilities.
Read more about the Chitetezo Mbaula project at unsustainablemagazine. Simple Adjustments Make Some Performance Improvements Three one inch in diameter holes were drilled through the back of the clay stove body with the intention of allowing more air into the charcoal bed. Here are the test results: Description of the changes We kept the pot height at 16cm above the top of the Jet-Flame. Three rebar supports held up the pot replacing the heavier and bulkier bricks. A short 6cm high by 18cm long FeCrAl fence kept the sticks on top of the combustion zone in the Jet-Flame.
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